Commuting Stress: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

Commuting Stress

Commuting, the act of travelling some distance to work, is a nearly ubiquitous phenomenon that can serve as a source of stress for employees.

Consistent with the model of commuting stress proposed by Koslowsky, Kluger, & Reich (1995; see below), we are conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the commuting literature, with a particular focus the relationship between objective (i.e., time spent commuting, distance traveled) and subjective commuting stressors (i.e., perceived impedance) on strain-related outcomes (e.g., perceived stress, subjective health, physiological symptoms, subjective well being) and moderators of these relationship (e.g., commuting modality).

We are currently seeking unpublished data (i.e., correlations, means, sample sizes, and reliability estimates) between commuting variables (i.e., time and/or distance; subjective impedance) and relevant strain outcomes.

If you have conducted a study on commuting (i.e., time and/or distance) stress and strain outcomes that you think meets these criteria, please email Cort W. Rudolph, Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University (


Cort Rudolph
Lauren Murphy
Haley Cobb
Hannes Zacher


Koslowsky, M., Kluger, A. N., & Reich, M. (1995). Commuting Stress: Causes. Effects, and Methods of Coping. Plenum Press, New York.

Cort W. Rudolph
Associate Professor of Industrial & Organizational Psychology